Black Box Testing vs White Box – Difference

Black Box Testing vs White Box

Software developers understand the importance of using modern software testing methods. For example, blackbox and whitebox testing are very popular methods for the early detection of problems. This method checks the application’s functionality following the basic requirements presented by the test customer.

White box testing is low-level testing whose main task is to check the application infrastructure.

Which software testing method to choose? To answer this question, you should study all the advantages and features of these types of checks. So, black box testing vs white box testing: main differences, features, characteristics, and nuances.

White box testing

It is the super method of software testing. The term “white box” means the ability to see the internal functioning of the system. The main task of this type of testing is to check the application infrastructure. Definition of white box testing: it is a low-level type of testing that aims to verify the internal functioning of a system based on the coverage of code statements, paths, branches, or conditions. The process assumes that the logical path in the module or program is known to the tester.

This type of testing consists of unit testing and integration testing. It requires the tester to be knowledgeable in programming, focusing on the code structure, conditions, branches, and paths of the software or program. In addition, this aims to enhance the software’s security and the flow of inputs and outputs through the software. This type is also known as transparent block, structural, and code-based.

It involves checking software code for:

  • Paths in the coding process that are poorly organized or broken
  • Internal flaws in the security system and etc.

Software development can include integration, system, and unit testing. For example, one of the main tasks of white box testing is checking the application workflow’s correctness.

Black box testing

It is a very popular testing technique among software testing methods. Black box testing is a very complex process of checking an application’s functionality according to the customer’s basic requirements. This type of manual testing is aimed at verifying the software’s behavior. When conducting this type of testing, a specialist does not need to have information about the internal structure of this software system.

This type of testing is used at all levels of software testing: integration, modular, acceptance, etc. This process includes testing from the point of view of an external or end-user.

The main source of BB testing is the specification requirements specified by the test customer. This method examines the software’s functionality in detail without knowing its internal structure or code. Instead, the focus is on accounting for the input and output of a particular function. Software testers identify different bugs by analyzing software for compliance and send the findings to the development team.

This testing is less comprehensive than white and gray box testing methods. It is high-level testing. Ultimately, the customer receives information about all functional defects and errors.

How Does Black Box testing Work?

This type of testing takes pride of place in software testing.

  • Testers first evaluate the Needs and Specifications of the system. It analyzes how successfully the SUT processes valid input data. The tester selects useful input data (this is the so-called implementation of a positive test case). The tester then generates certain erroneous inputs (this is the so-called negative test scenario) to ensure that the SUT can identify them.
  • For each of the inputs, the software tester calculates predicted results.
  • Using the input data, test cases are created.
  • The tester executes different test cases.
  • The results obtained are compared with the predicted outputs of the software tester. Deficiencies, if found, are corrected. A check is being made to make sure everything is ok.

Black box testing vs white box

This review will compare the characteristics and features of white and black box testing. These testing methods require different data from the tester to analyze various aspects. However, both methods are very good and effective. So let’s consider them in more detail.

  1. Definition
  • The BB is a technique created for testing software without knowledge of the underlying structure of the application or program.
  • The WB is a testing method in which the tester is aware of the system’s internal structure.
  1. Base of Testing
  • BB testing depends on external assumptions, and the underlying behavior of the application is unknown.
  • Since the system’s inner workings in white box testing are clear, the tester can perform appropriate testing.
  1. Alias
  • BB: Various names include white box testing, clear box, code-based testing, transparent box testing, structural test, and glass box testing.
  • WB: Data Driven Testing, Box Testing, Functional Testing and Data Testing, are some of the other black box names.
  1. Implementation knowledge
  • The white box test requires great knowledge.
  • And when testing with a black box, such detailed knowledge is not required.
  1. Programming knowledge
  • Is not required from a tester to perform BB testing.
  • However, white box tests require it.
  1. Usage
  • Black box testing is ideal for higher-level testing such as acceptance and system testing.
  • White box testing is better suited for low-level testing such as integration testing and unit testing.
  1. Automation
  • Feature of BB testing: Since the test and the programmer are closely intertwined, their automation is difficult.
  • Automating WB testing is simple.
  1. Objective
  • The main purpose of BB testing is to determine a system’s functionality.
  • The main task of WB testing is ensuring the code is of excellent quality.
  1. The basis for test cases
  • Black box testing can begin after the requirements specification document is ready.
  • After filling out the Working Documentation in the case of testing with a white box, you can start testing.
  1. Tested by
  • BB: End-user, tester, developer.
  • WB: As a rule, testers and developers deal with this.
  1. Granularity
  • WB: The level of detail is significant
  • BB: Lacks detail.
  1. Time
  • Blackbox testing: This is less tiring and takes less time.
  • White box: This is a very time-consuming and tedious process.
  1. Benefit
  • BB: Suitable and very efficient for long parts of code.
  • WB: This allows you to remove redundant lines of code that can eventually lead to hidden flaws.
  1. Testing method
  • The testing process is based on trial and error in the case of black box testing.
  • WB: Can test inner bounds and subject area.
  1. Code Access
  • BB: Access to the source code is not required.
  • For white box testing Access to code is required.
  1. Algorithm testing
  • BB: This is not the best way to test algorithms.
  • WB testing is Ideal for testing algorithms.
  1. Skill level
  • BB: Low-skilled testers can test an application without understanding the operating system or programming language.
  • For WB testing, the tester must have a lot of experience.
  1. Drawbacks
  • BB: If you change your application, you should update your automation test script.
  • WB: If the codebase evolves rapidly, automated test cases can become obsolete.
  1. Techniques
  • Techniques equivalence partitioning is a black box approach to testing.
  • WB: branch coverage, statement coverage, and path coverage.


It would be helpful if you understood the specifics of each method to use it most effectively. Successful software delivery requires testing with these methods. The tester is responsible for finding as many bugs as possible to maximize the application’s performance.


What is common in the white box and black box testing?

WB and BB testing are performed to ensure that the application works as correctly as possible. These are effective methods of checking for errors that need to be corrected.

What kind of testing is done as part of white box testing?

Path testing, logic testing, cycle testing, structural testing, open box testing, and code structure.

What is White Box Testing?

It is a low-level type of testing, the main purpose of which is to check the application’s infrastructure.

What is Black Box Testing?

It is a process of checking the functionality of an application against the basic requirements received from the customer.